Mobile Autonomous Robot (MAR-1) was developed by the Department of Agriculture robotics at the Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers named after V.P. Goryachkin in the early 1980s in the USSR.
The first model of MAR-1 was designed to serve the cattle-breeding industry. The robot was made so that it could use the existing walkways on farms (figured on human), modern equipment and tools.
The height of the robot is 1850 mm, area of base is a third of a square meter. It has a pair of hands that have eight degrees of freedom. The frame of machine rotates around the vertical axis in any direction. This additionally increases the possibility of “hands”. Hydraulic “muscle” of each hand lifts up to 75 kilograms of cargo. Tactile transducers allow the fingers to register the compression or shock in the range from 0.0294 g to 112.7 kg, the temperature – from 0.4 to 180 degrees and the humidity – from 3 to 99 percent. MAR-1 was made a sectional (the detachable arms, the pump-hydraulic, power, navigation and locating subsystems were aggregated).
Scheme of MAR-1:
1 – Block of sensory sensitization; 2 – Block of hand-grips;
3 – The block of automatic control and communications; 4 – Hydraulic Power Unit;
5 – Block of Navigation; 6 – Unit of energy supply. 
The internal clock tells to MAR-1 about start of work. The information about the technological environment of cattle-breeding complex, all passes, entrances and exits, production sites are recorded in the memory of the automatic operator. There is also a subsystem that allows the robot to stay on track. Arriving at the workplace, MAR-1 connects by itself to the electrical network, lines of communication, control panel or computer. During operation, the device automatically monitors the status of the environment (humidity, fumes) and animals (temperature, thickness of subcutaneous fat).
The designing of the mobile automatic devices for work with plants in greenhouses and in open fields also were conducted.
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